Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is an effective microscopy-based technique for visualizing cellular components in tissue samples, and although IHC images are fascinating and tremendously informative, the art of creating useful IHC images requires attention to several important factors and awareness of potential problems. Here are some troubleshooting tips to help with achieving crisp, clean IHC images free of background staining and non-specific antibody binding.
Superantigens are a class of antigens that cause non-specific activation of T-cells and may have evolved as defense mechanisms of some pathogens against host immune responses. Responses to superantigens include polyclonal T-cell activation and massive release of cytokines, primarily interferon gamma. High levels of interferon gamma activate macrophages which produce proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-alpha that can result in shock and organ failure.
Data released by The World Health Organization (WHO) On July 7, 2017 revealed that cases of gonorrhoea are increasingly more difficult to treat due to widespread resistance to antibiotics that were traditionally used to treat those infections.